Acepromazine is a tranquilizer that is used before anesthesia and surgery because of its sedative effects and its ability to prevent vomiting.
It can be prescribed as an aid in controlling excited animals during examinations, treatments, and grooming.
Acepromazine can be used for Cats And Dogs.
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- Common: Acepromazine will cause hypotension, decreased respiratory rate and bradycardia. Dogs are particularly sensitive to cardiovascular side-effects but cardiovascular collapse also has occurred in cats. Sudden collapse, decreased or absent pulse and breathing, pale gums and unconsciousness may occur in some animals.
- Rare: fatal interactions with anesthetics have been reported.
- Acepromazine will cause a dose-dependent decrease in hematocrit in both dogs and horses. This effect occurs within 30 minutes of administration and may last for 12 hours or more. The hematocrit in horses may decrease by as much as 50%.
- Penile paralysis is a rare but recognized adverse side effect of acepromazine use in the horse. This drug should be avoided in breeding stallions.
- Acepromazine lowers blood pressure: it should not be used in animals that are dehydrated, anemic or in shock.
- Acepromazine should be avoided or used with extreme caution in older animals or those with liver disease, heart disease, injury or debilitation. If it is used in these animals, it should be given in very small doses. In some older animals, a very small dose can have a marked and very prolonged effect.
- Acepromazine should not be used in animals with a history of epilepsy, those prone to seizures or those receiving a myelogram, because it may lower the seizure threshold.
- Acepromazine should not be used in animals with tetanus or strychnine poisoning.
- Acepromazine should be avoided in pregnancy or lactation. It should be avoided or used with extreme caution in young animals due to its effects on an animal's ability to thermo regulate.
- Dogs: Giant breeds and greyhounds may be extremely sensitive to acepromazine, while terriers may require higher doses. Brachycephalic breeds, especially Boxers, are particularly prone to cardiovascular side-effects drop in blood pressure and slow heart- rate. Acepromazine should be avoided or used with great caution in these breeds.
- Horses: Draft-horse breeds are especially sensitive to most sedatives including acepromazine. Pony breeds do not appear to differ from horses in their responses to acepromazine.
- Animals receiving acepromazine will require lower doses of barbiturates, narcotics and other anesthetics. These combinations increase central nervous system depression.
- Antidiarrheal mixtures like Kaopectate® and Pepto-Bismol® or antacids decrease the absorption of oral acepromazine.
- Acepromazine should not be used within one month of deworming with organophosphate compounds.
- Quinidine, epinephrine, propanolol, procaine hydrochloride and phenytoin all have been shown to have significant drug interactions with phenothiazines. Further information should be sought before concomitant administration.
- Overdose will cause excessive sedation, slow respiratory- and heart-rate, pale gums, unsteady gait, poor coordination and inability to stand. It also may cause sudden collapse, unconsciousness, seizures and death.
- Oral overdose should be treated by emptying the stomach along with monitoring and other supportive care.
- Phenylephrine and norepinephrine are the drugs-of-choice to treat acepromazine-induced hypotension. Barbiturates or diazepam may be used to treat seizures associated with overdose.